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EDITORIAL
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 31  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 320-322  

Laying the ground for research of interstitial lung disease in our country: ILD India registry


1 Editor-in-Chief, Lung India and Director, Asthma Bhawan, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
2 Department of Medicine, SMS Medical College Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India

Date of Web Publication1-Oct-2014

Correspondence Address:
Virendra Singh
Editor-in-Chief, Lung India and Director, Asthma Bhawan, Jaipur, Rajasthan
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0970-2113.142091

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How to cite this article:
Singh V, Sharma BB. Laying the ground for research of interstitial lung disease in our country: ILD India registry. Lung India 2014;31:320-2

How to cite this URL:
Singh V, Sharma BB. Laying the ground for research of interstitial lung disease in our country: ILD India registry. Lung India [serial online] 2014 [cited 2019 Nov 12];31:320-2. Available from: http://www.lungindia.com/text.asp?2014/31/4/320/142091

India is a country with great diversity where dresses, dialects and diets vary drastically from place to place. But, above all there is a vast universality in thinking and emotions throughout India. Likewise, many chronic diseases have identical presentations, but with subtle and yet important regional differences.

Interstitial lung disease (ILD) represents a group of about 200 distinct disorders involving lung parenchyma. ILDs are often referred to as diffuse parenchymal lung disease (DPLD). We have used both these terms in this editorial. Uniform approach to diagnosis and treatment of ILD is buttressed from time to time with the help of standard guidelines. In 2002, the American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society (ATS/ERS) guidelines classified idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) into seven specific entities and offered standardized terminology and diagnostic criteria. The "gold standard" need of a histological diagnosis was changed to a multidisciplinary approach. [1]

New information about ILD is regularly available after 2002 guidelines. The 2013 update is a supplement to the previous 2002 guidelines. [2] There was a need to provide a better clinical algorithm for diagnosis and management of IIPs. Idiopathic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) is now accepted as a specific disease entity and in smokers respiratory bronchiolitis-ILD (RB-ILD) is increasingly diagnosed without surgical lung biopsy. Pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis as well as bronchiolocentric inflammation and fibrosis are recognized as specific rare entities.

According to 2013 update, there are three broad categories: First, major idiopathic interstitial pneumonias comprising of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, RB-ILD, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, cryptogenic organizing pneumonia and acute interstitial pneumonia. Second, rare idiopathic interstitial pneumonias are pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis and lymphoid interstitial pneumonia. The third and final category is unclassifiable idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. [2]

Incorporation of genetic and molecular studies may revolutionize the approach to diagnosis and classification of the IIPs. Some potential biomarkers useful in the differential diagnosis and prognosis of ILD are chemokine ligand (CCL); intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM); Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6); matrix metalloproteinase (MMP); protein encoded by S100-A12 gene (S100-A12); surfactant protein (SP); vascular cell adhesion protein (VCAM). [2],[3]

Usually, there are multiple sources of data collection for ILD or any other similar disease of great public health importance. [4] Studies based on questionnaires for pulmonary physicians, use of pre-existing databases, such as hospital database and death register, or small case-series are usual source of data. In these studies, there are major methodological limitations and heterogeneity which make the comparison of epidemiological parameters virtually impossible. The data available from national registries, on the other hand, can provide more homogeneous information.

The pioneer ILD registry by Coultas et al. was from a county of New Mexico in the United States. [5] According to this registry, the prevalence of IPF was about 20 per lakh in males as against about 13 per lakh in females. According to Thomeer et al. a lower proportion of IPF was reported from Belgium. [6] On the other hand, an Italian registry reported IPF in 27% of cases. [7]

According to a recent review of 15 studies, prevalence of IPF in the United States is between 14 and 63 cases per lakh population and an incidence of 7% to17% as against Europian incidence of 0.2% to7%. [8] It can be assumed that with introduction of better diagnostic amenities and superior overall life expectancy, the incidence of ILD will further increase. Some newer IPF registries are being set up which are likely to yield important data on IPF after the revision of diagnostic criteria in 2002. [9],[10]

There is a paucity of literature on the pattern, determinants, distribution and response of treatment of ILD in India. Small regional studies have contributed a lot in our understanding of the disease. Though no true epidemiological study on prevalence of ILDs and its different subgroups from India is available; according to the studies available proportion of IPF may vary between approximately 30% and 45% [Table 1]. In all Indian studies, CTD associated ILD, hypersensitivity pneumonitis and sarcoidosis are present in significant proportions.
Table 1: Studies reporting pattern of ILD in India

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In 1979, Jindal et al. published their data on cases of DPLD seen over a period of five years and among them 46% of cases were having IPF. [11] In 1984, Sharma et al. reported IPF to be present in 28.6% of their patients with DPLD. [12] In 2004, Maheshwari et al. showed female preponderance of IPF and mean age of presentation about 50 years. [13] In the same year a group of investigators from south India supported the fact that secondary DPLD (55%) was more common than IPF. [14] In addition subjective improvement with steroids was more in secondary DPLD as compared to IPF. In 2010, Sen et al. in their retrospective analysis reported that besides IPF, sarcoidosis, ILDs secondary to CTD and hypersensitivity pneumonitis were the main diagnoses. [15] After 2011 ATS/ERS guidelines, there is a drastic change in our algorithm to approach to IIPs. Unfortunately, no large Indian study worth reporting is available in more recent period.

ILD India registry is step toward knowing these facts about these diseases especially the IPF. [16]

ILD India registry was started in 2011. Inclusion criteria are respiratory symptoms such as shortness of breath and cough and bilateral abnormalities in x-ray/high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scan of thorax. History, physical examination, spirometry, and HRCT chest are essential. Six-minute walk test is optional. If patient has symptoms consistent with a collagen vascular disease then rheumatoid factor and ANA are done. If either test is positive a full panel is done. If a patient with an initial diagnosis of ILD develops pulmonary tuberculosis over the course of treatment, he/she is included in the ILD India registry. A patient having history of AFB smear positive tuberculosis without prior ILD is not included. However, patients with no history of AFB positivity and a doubtful radiographic pattern are included as this may be due to sarcoidosis or other similar ILDs. In patients with no clear cut pattern of ILD bronchoalveolar lavage, transbronchial lung biopsy and open lung biopsy are required in order to try to establish a diagnosis. Any infectious or malignant diseases are criteria of exclusion in the registry. Detailed history of exposure and past medications is incorporated in registry to include all possible factors linked to the disease. We recently encountered a series of cases of hypersensitivity pneumonitis after very unusual exposure to dug-well which was not previously reported from India or rest of the world. [17] The environmental assessment of dug-well as well as detailed work-up of patients suggested toward Aspergillus species as the main culprit.

There is a simple procedure for submitting data of individual patients. After taking informed consent the investigator fills the proforma. Relevant investigations are done (spirometry and HRCT scan thorax are mandatory). Investigator makes a diagnosis and submits the proforma online. Investigator then sends the following data in electronic format to the National Co-ordinator: Spirometry tracings with report (scanned or good photocopy), X-ray chest report and photo, HRCT scan (preferably a DICOM CD) and histopathology slides along with a copy of biopsy report. Both inspiratory/expiratory and supine/prone films are preferable. A slice thickness of 1 to 1.5 mm is required. If clinical features and chest radiograph suggest hilar enlargement, then contrast is required to delineate mediastinal structures. Confirmation of diagnoses is done by expert panel (two radiologists, two physicians and two histopathologists) at national and international levels as a two-step process. There is a facility of data entry on follow up visits and any unforeseen event (e.g. death) is informed to the registry.

This issue of Lung India contains an article on the pattern of ILD in eastern India. [18] Kundu et al. have studied clinical, laboratory and imaging parameters of patients with ILD and compared the presentations of IPF with Connective Tissue Disease Associated ILD (CTD-ILD). They found IPF to be present in 38.04% of their study participants and CTD-ILD in 31.5%. In western literature, the incidence of IPF exceeds far beyond the other groups. As far as the frequency of individual ILD is concerned, hypersensitivity pneumonitis and sarcoidosis are close competitors with CTD-ILD throughout world. They also found that IPF and CTD-ILD vary considerably with respect to certain demographical, clinical, physiological and radiographic parameters. In this study, comparison of serum markers of CTD between IPF and CTD-ILD, in our opinion, is superfluous. Comparisons of biomarkers between these would have been more informative. Another variance in this study was exclusion of many cases that could have been included. As stated above, we include upper lobe fibrotic patterns where there is no history of AFB positivity. NSIP patterns are also included in the registry as an isolated group of IIP other than that associated with CTD-ILD even if no biopsy is available. A confident diagnosis of NSIP can be made based on clearly defined HRCT features. [19],[20],[21] The follow-up of the cases shown in the study is too short to be of significant importance for a disease with a variable long term course such as ILD. [22] Nevertheless, this study documents pattern of ILD from eastern part of India and is a commendable effort directed toward workup of patients with ILD in their region.

All the premium Indian journals of pulmonary diseases are regularly publishing scientific material on ILD but it is much less as compared to the fast growing body of word literature on ILD. Moreover, most of the Indian literature on ILD is in the form of interesting case reports or case series on individual ILDs. We advocate for more focused research on this disease especially on IPF by our own indigenous people.

 
   References Top

1.American Thoracic Society; European Respiratory Society. American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society International Multidisciplinary Consensus Classification of the Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias. This joint statement of the American Thoracic Society (ATS), and the European Respiratory Society (ERS) was adopted by the ATS board of directors, June 2001 and by the ERS Executive Committee, June 2001. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2002;165:277-304.  Back to cited text no. 1
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2.Travis WD, Costabel U, Hansell DM, King TE Jr, Lynch DA, Nicholson AG, et al.; ATS/ERS Committee on Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias. An official American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society statement: Update of the international multidisciplinary classification of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2013;188:733-48.  Back to cited text no. 2
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3.Devine MS, Garcia CK. Genetic interstitial lung disease. Clin Chest Med 2012;33:95-110.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Kaunisto J, Salomaa ER, Hodgson U, Kaarteenaho R, Myllärniemi M. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: A systematic review on methodology for the collection of epidemiological data. BMC Pulm Med 2013;13:53.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Coultas DB, Zumwalt RE, Black WC, Sobonya RE. The epidemiology of interstitial lung diseases. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1994;150:967-72.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.Thomeer MJ, Costabe U, Rizzato G, Poletti V, Demedts M. Comparison of registries of interstitial lung diseases in three European countries. Eur Respir J Suppl 2001;32:114s-8s.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.Tinelli C, De Silvestri A, Richeldi L, Oggionni T. The Italian register for diffuse infiltrative lung disorders (RIPID): A four-year report. Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis 2005;22(Suppl 1):S4-8.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.Nalysnyk L, Cid-Ruzafa J, Rotella P, Esser D. Incidence and prevalence of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: Review of the literature. Eur Respir Rev 2012;21:355-61.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.Guenther A; European IPF Network. The European IPF Network: Towards better care for a dreadful disease. Eur Respir J 2011;37:747-8.  Back to cited text no. 9
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10.Macansch S, Glaspole I, Hopkins P, Moodley Y, Reynolds P, Walters H, et al. The Australian idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis registry-A national collaboration provides epidemiological insights and research opportunities. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2013;187:A1457.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.Jindal SK, Malik SK, Deodhar SD, Sharma BK. Fibrosing alveolitis: A report of 61 cases seen over the past five years. Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci 1979;21:174-9.  Back to cited text no. 11
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12.Sharma SK, Pande JN, Verma K, Guleria JS. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) analysis in interstitial lung diseases: A 7-year experience. Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci 1989;31:187-96.  Back to cited text no. 12
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13.Maheshwari U, Gupta D, Aggarwal AN, Jindal SK. Spectrum and diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci 2004;46:23-6.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.Subhash HS, Ashwin I, Solomon SK, David T, Cherian AM, Thomas K. A comparative study on idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and secondary diffuse parenchymal lung disease. Indian J Med Sci 2004;58:185-90.  Back to cited text no. 14
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15.Sen T, Udwadia ZF. Retrospective study of interstitial lung disease in a tertiary care centre in India. Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci 2010;52:207-11.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.Singh V, Sharma BB. The ILD India registry: A novel tool for epidemiological surveillance of interstitial lung disease in India. Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci 2013;55:197-9.  Back to cited text no. 16
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17.Sharma BB, Singh S, Singh V. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis: The dug-well lung. Allergy Asthma Proc 2013;34:e59-64.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.Kundu S, Mitra S, Ganguly J, Mukherjee S, Ray S, Mitra R. Spectrum of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases with special reference to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and connective tissue disease: An eastern India experience. Lung India 2014;31:354-60.  Back to cited text no. 18
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19.Elliot TL, Lynch DA, Newell JD Jr, Cool C, Tuder R, Markopoulou K, et al. High-resolution computed tomography features of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia and usual interstitial pneumonia. J Comput Assist Tomogr 2005;29:339-45.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.Johkoh T, Müller NL, Colby TV, Ichikado K, Taniguchi H, Kondoh Y, et al. Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia: Correlation between thin-section CT findings and pathologic subgroups in 55 patients. Radiology 2002;225:199-204.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.MacDonald SL, Rubens MB, Hansell DM, Copley SJ, Desai SR, du Bois RM, et al. Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia and usual interstitial pneumonia: Comparative appearances at and diagnostic accuracy of thin-section CT. Radiology 2001;221:600-5.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.Nathan SD, Shlobin OA, Weir N, Ahmad S, Kaldjob JM, Battle E, et al. Long-term course and prognosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in the new millennium. Chest 2011;140:221-9.  Back to cited text no. 22
    



 
 
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