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Lung India Official publication of Indian Chest Society  
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Year : 2017  |  Volume : 34  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 241-246

Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration in diagnosing mediastinal lymphadenopathy

1 Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Lady Hardinge Medical College and Smt. SK Hospital, New Delhi, India
2 Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, New Delhi, India
3 Department of Pathology, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Tanushree Gahlot
CA/14C, DDA Flats, Munirka, New Delhi - 110 067
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0970-2113.205339

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Context: The diagnosis of mediastinal lymphadenopathy is always a challenge. There always a need of a technique that is highly accurate as well as safe for diagnosis the same. Aims: The aim of the study is to assess the clinical usefulness and safety profile of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) in diagnosing the patients with mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Settings and Design: This was an observational prospective study. Subjects and Methods: One hundred adult patients with mediastinal lymphadenopathy who underwent EBUS-TBNA with aspirate obtained from the most hypoechoic lymph node (with a 22 gauge needle) and its cytopathological analysis were included in the study. Patients were observed for postprocedure complications. Results: Out of 100, 92 cases were reported as adequate (diagnostic yield = 92%). Among these 92, there were 71 granulomatous lymphadenitis (tuberculosis [TB] = 41 [44.5%], sarcoid-like granuloma = 30 [32.2%]). Malignancy was reported in 16 (17.3%) patients, and 5 (5.43%) were reported to have reactive lymphadenopathy. There was one case each of Mycobacterium avium complex and Mycobacterium abscessus. Out of 16 cases of malignancy, six cases were adenocarcinoma, four cases of squamous cell carcinoma, and two cases of small cell carcinoma. There were three cases of Hodgkin's lymphoma and one case of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. No major complications were noted, except fever (26), nausea (20), mild bleeding (4), bronchospasm (3), and transient intraprocedural hypoxia (2). Conclusions: EBUS-TBNA is highly accurate (diagnostic yield 92%) and safe procedure for diagnosing mediastinal lymphadenopathy. In our experience, granulomatous lymphadenitis was most common with TB as the main etiology.

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