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Lung India Official publication of Indian Chest Society  
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Year : 2017  |  Volume : 34  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 283-286

Spontaneous massive hemopneumothorax: Double trouble with a twist

Metro Centre for Respiratory Diseases, Metro Multispecialty Hospital, Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Arjun Khanna
Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Metro Centre for Respiratory Diseases, Metro Multispecialty Hospital, Noida, Uttar Pradesh
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/lungindia.lungindia_6_16

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Spontaneous hemopneumothorax (SHP) is observed in 3%–7% cases of spontaneous pneumothorax where the tear of an adhesion can lead to bleeding with associated hemothorax. This condition has been reported in patients with hemophilia, sarcoidosis, congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation, systemic lupus erythematosus, etc., Here, we describe an unusual case of acute massive SHP in a 62-year-old male who underwent a percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) and presented with worsening dyspnea over the next 3 days. On evaluation, he had a massive hemopneumothorax which was considered to be secondary to the use of anticoagulants during the PTCA procedure. Pleural fluid analysis revealed frank blood and was consistent with the diagnosis of hemothorax. Surprisingly, the pleural fluid cytology revealed malignant cells. As the patient had a normal chest X-ray 3 days ago, thoracoscopic pleural biopsy was taken which confirmed the diagnosis of an epithelioid mesothelioma. Although post-PTCA or mesothelioma-associated hemothorax has been rarely reported, these two conditions have not been associated with SHP. Since the patient had no prior clinicoradiological features of mesothelioma, the procedure, and the anticoagulants probably contributed to the massive and rapid accumulation of blood. The presence of small amount of air added further confusion to the dual etiology and has not been described earlier.

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