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Lung India Official publication of Indian Chest Society  
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Year : 2018  |  Volume : 35  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 108-115

Microbial etiology in hospitalized North Indian adults with community-acquired pneumonia

1 Department of Internal and Pulmonary Medicine, Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India
2 Department of Clinical Microbiology, Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India

Correspondence Address:
Prof. Parvaiz A Koul
Department of Internal and Pulmonary Medicine, Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Soura, Srinagar - 190 011, Jammu and Kashmir
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/lungindia.lungindia_288_17

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Background: There is a paucity of literature regarding the microbial etiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in India. The current study was aimed to study the microbial etiology of hospitalized adults with CAP. Methods: The study was conducted in a 700-bedded North Indian hospital. Consecutive adults admitted with CAP over a period of 2 years from 2013 to 2015 were recruited for the study, and apart from clinical evaluation underwent various microbiological studies in the form of blood culture, sputum culture, urinary antigen for pneumococcus and Legionella, serology for Mycoplasma and Chlamydia and real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for influenza viruses. Radiographic studies were performed in all patients and repeated as required. The patients were treated with standard antibiotic/antiviral therapy and outcomes were recorded. Results: A total of 225 patients (median age: 59 years) were enrolled. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most common organism found (30.5%), followed by Legionella pneumophila (17.5%), influenza viruses (15.4%), Mycoplasma pneumoniae (7.2%), Chlamydia pneumonia (5.5%), Mycobacterium tuberculosis (4.8%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (4.8%), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (3.5%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (3.1%), methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (1.7%), and Acinetobacter sp. (0.8%) with 4% of patients having multiple pathogens etiologies. High Pneumonia Severity Index score correlated with the severity and outcome of the CAP but was not predictive of any definite etiological pathogen. In-hospital mortality was 8%. Conclusion: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Legionella, and influenza constitute the most common etiological agents for north Indian adults with CAP requiring hospitalization. Appropriate antibiotic therapy and preventive strategies such as influenza and pneumococcal vaccination need to be considered in appropriate groups.

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