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Lung India Official publication of Indian Chest Society  
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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 36  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 519-524

Prospective 1-year follow-up study of all cured, new sputum smear positive tuberculosis patients under the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program in Hyderabad, Telangana State, India

1 Department of Community Medicine, Apollo Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
2 WHO-RNTCP Technical Support Program, WHO India Country Office, New Delhi, India
3 Department of General Medicine, Apollo Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
4 Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program, Government of Telangana, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Neeta Mathur
Department of Community Medicine, Apollo Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Hyderabad, Telangana
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/lungindia.lungindia_143_19

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Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the leading causes of mortality in India. The Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (RNTCP) is a robust public health system to deal with TB in India. Unless the treated patient comes back to the system with signs and symptoms of TB due to relapse or re-infection, there is no mechanism of follow-up or any method to know the relapse rate in the population. We attempted to follow the patients declared as “Cured” as per the RNTCP guidelines for 1–2 years to identify the health status of the index cases and their household contacts in posttreatment phase. Materials and Methods: In this prospective cohort study, 187 index cases, who were declared “Cured” in six randomly selected TB units of Hyderabad district, were followed up for 1–2 years through home visits by trained staff with structured data collection forms. Data were analyzed using SPSS v20.0. Results: The mean age of the index cases was 33.64 (±16.10) years, and there were 75 females and 112 males. The study sample was homogenous for gender, age, smear grade, religion, marital status, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and human immunodeficiency virus status, etc., At 1-year posttreatment follow-up of 187 index cases, 143 (76.47%) were healthy and working without any symptoms of TB. Symptoms of TB were present in 26 (13.90%) cases, and seven index cases (4.06%) were re-diagnosed with TB. The 2-year posttreatment survival was 92%. Conclusion: Long-term follow-up of cured, new smear-positive TB cases reinforce the effectiveness of anti-TB treatment under the RNTCP as assessed by improved health outcomes in more than two-thirds of cases and posttreatment survival of 92% of index cases. We recommend continuing such follow-up for all TB cases treated under the RNTCP for effective end-TB strategy.

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