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   2012| July-September  | Volume 29 | Issue 3  
    Online since July 28, 2012

 
 
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CASE REPORTS
Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema in a tyre industry worker
Vinaya S Karkhanis, JM Joshi
July-September 2012, 29(3):273-276
DOI:10.4103/0970-2113.99116  
We report a case of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) with severe pulmonary hypertension in a 46-year-old man, nonsmoker, tyre industry worker. CPFE is commonly reported to be associated with tobacco smoking. This case highlights the possible role of environmental dust exposure (talc) in the pathogenesis of the disease and confirms the clinical characteristics of CPFE described in previous studies.
  6,056 429 1
REVIEW ARTICLE
Tuberculosis diagnostics: Challenges and opportunities
Vijay Nema
July-September 2012, 29(3):259-266
DOI:10.4103/0970-2113.99112  
Tuberculosis (TB) has been a disease affecting almost all parts of the world since ages. Lot many efforts came in the past for improving diagnosis and treatment. Also, an effective vaccine has been sought after for long. With the emergence of resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causal organisms of tuberculosis, and complexities emerging due to other associated infections and disease conditions, there is a desperate need for further research input in the field. Be it the better medication and care or better resistance management, proper diagnostics holds the key to success. It has been observed that a high burden of the disease was accompanied by resource limitations and poor research set-up. The scenario remained like this for several decades. With the refreshed vision of resourceful countries and funding agencies, funding is being provided in many areas of research in tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment. This review has been written with an aim to bring forth the limitations of available methods in the field of diagnostics and making researchers aware about the changing scenario with better funding opportunities and support. The author visualizes an enthusiasm from all over the world for the development of better modalities and urges scientists to join the struggle at this very perfect time to take the challenge and come forward with innovations in this field.
  4,618 992 1
CASE REPORTS
Bilateral acute lupus pneumonitis in a case of rhupus syndrome
Supriya Sarkar, Kaushik Saha
July-September 2012, 29(3):280-282
DOI:10.4103/0970-2113.99119  
Rhupus syndrome, the overlap of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), is an extremely uncommon condition. Organ damages found due to SLE are usually mild in rhupus. Lupus pneumonitis in rhupus syndrome has not been reported worldwide. We are reporting a 23-year-old female with bilateral symmetric erosive arthritis, oral ulcer, alopecia, polyserositis, anemia, leucopenia, positive RA-factor, anti nuclear antibody (ANA) and anti ds-DNA. She presented with acute onset dyspnea, high fever, chest pain, tachycardia, tachypnea, hypoxia and respiratory alkalosis. High resolution computed tomography (HRCT)-thorax showed bilateral, basal consolidation with air bronchogram. Repeated sputum and single broncho alveolar lavage (BAL) fluid examination revealed no organism or Hemosiderin-laden macrophage. The diagnosis of rhupus was confirmed by combined manifestations of RA and SLE, and the diagnosis of acute lupus pneumonitis was established by clinico-radiological picture and by excluding other possibilities.
  4,646 453 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Socioeconomic impact of TB on patients registered within RNTCP and their families in the year 2007 in Chennai, India
Ramya Ananthakrishnan, Anita Jeyaraj, Gopal Palani, B. W. C. Sathiyasekaran
July-September 2012, 29(3):221-226
DOI:10.4103/0970-2113.99103  
Background: Tuberculosis patients are registered in government clinics under Directly Observed Treatment Short-course (DOTS) program in Chennai city catering to 4.34 million population. With the entire country geographically covered under the DOTS program, research into socioeconomic impact of TB on patients and their households is crucial for providing comprehensive patient-friendly TB services and to document the benefits of DOTS. Objective: To assess the social and economic impact of TB on patients registered under DOTS program and their families. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 300 TB patients was done using a pre-coded semi-quantitative questionnaire between March and June 2007 in all the Tuberculosis Units (TUs) of Chennai city. Results: Social and economic impact was perceived by 69.0% and 30.3% patients, respectively. About 24.3% suffered from both social and economic impact, while 75% patients suffered from any one form of impact. Social impact was perceived by more female patients as compared to males (80.7% vs. 62%; P < 0.001). More patients with extra-pulmonary disease (44.4%) and patients belonging to joint families (40.7%) perceived economic impact (P < 0.05). Conclusion: After 8 years of DOTS implementation, the present study has shown that with the availability of DOTS, percentage of patients who mortgaged assets or took loans has reduced. Social impact of TB is still perceived by two-thirds of the patients (69%). Elimination or reduction of social stressors with specific, focused, and intense social support services, awareness generation, and counseling to patients and families need to be built into the program.
  4,279 655 1
Price and consumption of tobacco
Virendra Singh, Bharat Bhushan Sharma, Puneet Saxena, Hardayal Meena, Daya Krishan Mangal
July-September 2012, 29(3):212-216
DOI:10.4103/0970-2113.99101  
Background: It is thought that price increase in tobacco products leads to reduced consumption. Though many studies have substantiated this concept, it has not been well studied in India. Recently, price of tobacco products was increased due to ban on plastic sachets of chewing tobacco and increased tax in Rajasthan. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of price rise on overall consumption of tobacco in Jaipur city, Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in Jaipur city. Two-staged stratified sampling was used. In the first phase of study, cost and consumption of various tobacco products in the months of February and April were enquired from 25 retail tobacco shops. In the second phase, tobacco consumption was enquired from 20 consecutive consumers purchasing any tobacco product from all the above retail tobacco shops. The data were statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics and paired "t" test. Results: The comparison of prices of tobacco products between February and April revealed that the price of cigarette, bidi, and chewing tobacco has increased by 19%, 21%, and 68%, respectively. Average decrease in sales of cigarettes, bidi, and chewing tobacco at shops included in the study were 14%, 23%, and 38%, respectively. The consumers purchasing tobacco also reported decreased consumption. Chewing tobacco showed the maximum reduction (21%). Consumption of cigarette and bidi has also reduced by 15% and 13%, respectively. Conclusion: It may be concluded that reduction in consumption is associated with increased price of tobacco products. Reduced consumption is comparative to the magnitude of price increase.
  4,281 569 -
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Scientific journals: Indexation and impact factor
Roland E Akhigbe
July-September 2012, 29(3):300-301
DOI:10.4103/0970-2113.99130  
  2,947 1,585 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Drug resistance profiles of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates to first line anti-tuberculous drugs: A five years study
Sarala Menon, Sujata Dharmshale, Chhaya Chande, Aruna Gohil, Sunil Lilani, Salim Mohammad, Ameeta Joshi, Abhay Chowdhary, Renu Bharadwaj
July-September 2012, 29(3):227-231
DOI:10.4103/0970-2113.99104  
Background: Drug resistance is a major problem in the treatment of tuberculosis (TB). An estimate of drug resistance is extremely important in the epidemiology and control of TB. However, an assessment of the magnitude of drug resistance in TB is not very well described globally and data remains scantier for India. In view of this, we reviewed our data over last five years. Materials and Methods: Six hundred and seventy-three Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were subjected to drug susceptibility against primary anti-tuberculosis drugs by economic variant proportion method. All isolates resistant to isoniazid and rifampicin were taken as multi-drug resistant (MDR). Results: Out of the 673 strains tested, 95 (14.11%) showed monoresistance, 365 (54.23%) strains were found to be resistant to more than one drug. A total of 118 (17.53%) strains were found to be resistant to all the four drugs tested. MDR was seen with 320 (47.54%) isolates. This study observed maximum resistance with rifampicin (74.4%) followed by streptomycin (70.0%), isoniazid (53.2%), and ethambutol (21.7%). Conclusion: While this information may not reflect true prevalence of drug resistance in the region, this may help in further planning long term surveillance studies to know the trend of drug resistance in this area.
  3,394 733 3
CASE REPORTS
Pulmonary sequelae in a patient recovered from swine flu
Virendra Singh, Bharat Bhushan Sharma, Vivek Patel
July-September 2012, 29(3):277-279
DOI:10.4103/0970-2113.99118  
The pandemic of swine flu (H1N1) influenza spread to involve the whole world rapidly. Many patients manifested a mild clinical illness but some developed pneumonia and respiratory failure. High mortality was observed in patients with severe disease. Among survivors, studies are limited. Ground-glass opacities on a high-resolution computerized tomography scan and reduced diffusion capacity were noted after 3 months in a study. But long-term complications in patients with swine flu pneumonia have not been studied well. We are presenting an unusual case of swine flu pneumonia who developed interstitial lung disease after recovery.
  3,493 361 5
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Assessment of pulmonary functions in obese adolescent boys
Swapnil J Paralikar, Rajesh G Kathrotia, Narendra R Pathak, Madhusudan B Jani
July-September 2012, 29(3):236-240
DOI:10.4103/0970-2113.99106  
Background: Obesity is rapidly escalating in India in all age groups. School-based data indicate a prevalence rate between 5.6% and 24% in children and adolescents. Adolescent obesity is associated with a greater long-term risk of hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus in adulthood. However, studies investigating pulmonary functions in obese adolescents are few. The present study assesses pulmonary functions in obese adolescent boys from a school in Baroda city, Gujarat. Aims: (i) To assess the dynamic lung functions in obese adolescent boys. (ii) To determine the predominant lung function impairment associated with obesity in adolescence. Materials and Methods: Dynamic lung functions were measured in 30 obese adolescent boys and an equal number of age-matched controls using MEDI:SPIRO software (Maestros Mediline Systems Ltd., Navi Mumbai, India). Results: Forced expiratory volume in the 1st second (FEV 1 )/forced vital capacity (FVC) and maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) were significantly decreased in the obese group (P < 0.001). Pulmonary functions in the study population correlated negatively with various indices of obesity, viz. weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio. The strongest negative correlation was between BMI and FEV 1 /FVC (P < 0.001) and between BMI, MVV, and Forced Expiratory Flow (FEF 25-75%) (P < 0.001). Waist-to-hip ratio in the study population correlated negatively with MVV (P < 0.01), but not with FEV 1 /FVC. Conclusions: Lung function impairment, particularly decreased MVV and reduced FEV 1 /FVC ratio, is associated with obesity in adolescence. In addition, pulmonary functions deteriorate with increasing obesity in adolescence and correlate negatively with various indices of obesity, viz. weight, BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio. This study reveals another health hazard associated with obesity and highlights the need to aggressively reduce weight at a younger age.
  3,039 655 2
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Smokeless tobacco use in pediatric population: What is the role of a Dental Surgeon in India?
Thorakkal Shamim
July-September 2012, 29(3):305-306
DOI:10.4103/0970-2113.99137  
  3,194 217 -
CASE REPORTS
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis without asthma complicating pulmonary tuberculosis
Mansi Gupta, Rahul Roshan, Sunil K Chhabra
July-September 2012, 29(3):286-288
DOI:10.4103/0970-2113.99122  
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is typically associated with asthma. Presence of asthma is one of the minimal essential diagnostic criteria for ABPA. Rarely, ABPA has been described in association with other diseases without asthma. It has so far not been known to complicate pulmonary tuberculosis. We report one such case in a young lady where all other diagnostic criteria were fulfilled. The patient responded to corticosteroids and then had acute exacerbations of ABPA twice, each time requiring an increased dosage of corticosteroids as well as itraconazole and responded favorably.
  2,737 403 1
EDITORIALS
Down the memory lane: Lung India three decades
SK Jindal, PS Shankar, VK Vijayan, SR Kamat, CN Deivanayagan
July-September 2012, 29(3):205-211
DOI:10.4103/0970-2113.99099  
  2,633 348 2
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Efficacy and safety of oral gemifloxacin for the empirical treatment of pneumonia
Vindu Amitabh, Anish Singhal, Sudhir Kumar, Narmada Patel, Yasir S Rizvi, Pankaj Mishra
July-September 2012, 29(3):248-253
DOI:10.4103/0970-2113.99109  
Context: Respiratory tract infections (RTI) are common causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Initial antibiotic therapy in upper and lower respiratory tract infections is usually empirical. The increasing evidence of antibacterial resistance in the pathogens commonly associated with pneumonia has raised concerns about the efficacy of currently available therapies and poses a challenge to clinicians. Gemifloxacin is a synthetic fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agent exhibiting potent activity against most Gram negative and Gram positive organisms. Hence, this study was planned to evaluate the efficacy of gemifloxacin as an empirical therapy in pneumonia. Materials and Methods: This was an open labelled, single-arm study. Patients with clinical features of community acquired pneumonia (CAP) who fulfilled the inclusion criteria received treatment with oral gemifloxacin 320 mg once daily for 5-7 days. Once enrolled in the study, patients were treated as outpatient or as inpatient depending on clinical need. The primary efficacy was to evaluate the clinical response at the end of therapy, i.e., day 9-11 for CAP. Secondary efficacy parameters included radiological and bacteriological response at the end of therapy. Patients were evaluated three times during the entire course of treatment (Visit 1, Day 0; Visit 2, Day 2-4; Visit 3, Day 9-11) for their clinical, radiological and/or bacteriological response, as well as for safety assessment. Results: A total of 105 patients received the study medication (gemifloxacin 320 mg orally). Two patients were "lost to follow-up" and one patient had to discontinue medication due to insufficient therapeutic effects. Clinical response at the end of therapy was successful in 99 (96.1%) while clinical failure was reported in 4 (3.9%) patient. As per the radiological response, 77.1% of the total cases showed improvement, 8.6% had no change, and 2.9% cases had deterioration in radiological findings. Gemifloxacin is an effective drug in the management of CAP. Conclusions: Gemifloxacin with coverage against both Gram positive and Gram negative organisms as well as atypical pathogens, with once daily oral dosing and minimum side effect is a very effective and economical choice for treating CAP empirically.
  2,382 476 -
CASE REPORTS
Tracheo-esophageal fistula: Successful palliation after failed esophageal stent
Rakesh K Chawla, Arun Madan, Kiran Chawla
July-September 2012, 29(3):289-292
DOI:10.4103/0970-2113.99123  
The incidence of tracheo-esophageal (TO) fistula is on the rise, especially after palliative management for esophageal malignancies. We report a case of cancer of esophagus who after chemotherapy and radiotherapy developed TO fistula. Placement of an esophageal stent helped him in taking food orally, but his cough and dyspnoea continued to worsen. Fibreoptic bronchoscopy demonstrated a severely compressed trachea secondary to protrusion of esophageal stent which responded very well to an Ultraflex-covered tracheal stent and the patient achieved relief from cough and dyspnoea.
  2,464 356 1
NEWER TECHNIQUE
Glue therapy in hemoptysis: A new technique
Rakesh K Chawla, Arun Madan, Dinesh Mehta, Aditya Chawla
July-September 2012, 29(3):293-294
DOI:10.4103/0970-2113.99125  
Hemoptysis is defined as the spitting of blood derived from the lungs or bronchial tubes as a result of pulmonary or bronchial hemorrhage. There is a large chunk of patients with hemoptysis who do not respond to conservative treatment including use of cough suppressants, antibiotics, vitamin C, hemostatics, and anxiolytics. The advanced management of such a situation is bronchial artery embolization (BAE) or open thoracic surgery, which is often not possible. We have attempted a cheap, effective, and safe alternative in the form of intrabronchial instillation of glue (n-butyl cyanoacrylate) under vision with the help of a therapeutic video bronchoscope (OLYMPUS T-180). The glue is instilled through a polyethylene catheter placed through the working channel of the video bronchoscope.
  2,275 519 1
CASE REPORTS
The sweet lung: Chewing gummi bear aspiration
Theonimfi Tavladaki, Michaela-Diana Fitrolaki, Anna-Maria Spanaki, Staurula Ilia, Elissabet Geromarkaki, George Briassoulis
July-September 2012, 29(3):267-269
DOI:10.4103/0970-2113.99113  
Inhalation of foreign bodies, a leading cause of accidental death, is most common in preschool children. In this article we report our experience with a 5-year-old Greek girl who presented with a 24-hour history of sore throat, chest pain, and shortness of breath. Emergency bronchoscopy was performed and multiple small chewing gummi bear (HARIBO) particles impacted in the orifices of the right main bronchus and right lobar and segmentalinic bronchi were successfully removed and aspirated. Aspiration of gummi bears, which is for the first time reported, may cause a silent choking episode leading to life-threatening bronchi obstruction at multiple sites, even in children older than 4 years.
  2,405 258 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Prevalence of obstructive airway disease by spirometric indices in non-smoker subjects with IHD and HTN
Virendra C Patil, Bhupal N Pujari, Harsha V Patil, Amit Munjal, Vaibhav Agrawal
July-September 2012, 29(3):241-247
DOI:10.4103/0970-2113.99108  
Background: Recent studies have found that there is a strong association between ischemic heart disease (IHD) and hypertension (HTN) with spirometric indices. Aims: To study the prevalence of obstructive airway disease (OAD) in non-smoker subjects with IHD and HTN and to compare them with healthy population. Settings and Design: This was a prospective, case-control, and observational study. Subjects and Methods: A total of 100 patients (cases) (n = 100) admitted in medicine department were recruited for this study. Controls (n = 100) were apparently healthy age- and sex-matched without HTN and IHD, recruited from March 2007 to July 2008. All eligible subjects were subjected to spirometric examination on a turbine-based spirometer (MIR spirolab-II) according to ATS/ERS guidelines. Forced expiratory volume/forced vital capacity (FEV 1 /FVC) ratio <70% was used to make a diagnosis of OAD. Statistical Analysis Used: All analyses were carried out using Statistical Software Package for Social Sciences trial version (SPSS 10 version). Results: Out of 100 cases, 18 were with FEV 1 /FVC ratio <70% (OAD) and 82 had >70% FEV 1 /FVC ratio. Out of 100 controls, 2 were with FEV 1 /FVC ratio <70% (OAD) and 98 had >70% FEV 1 /FVC ratio. Eleven patients out of 66 from the case population with HTN had FEV 1 /FVC ratio <70% (Odds ratio 8.044). Prevalence of OAD in the hypertensive individuals was 16.66%. Twelve patients out of 62 from the case population with IHD had FEV 1 /FVC ratio <70% (Odds ratio of 9.333). Prevalence of OAD in the IHD individuals was 19.35%. In multiple correlation results for case population, when pulmonary function test variables were correlated with various dependant (age) and independent variables [HTN, IHD, height, weight, body mass index (BMI)], they were significantly reduced (P = 0.00017). In multivariate analysis (MANOVA), spirometric variables like FEV 1 , FEV 1 /FVC%, FVC, forced expiratory flow (FEF) 25-75%, and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) were compared with factors like IHD, HTN, and covariates like age and BMI. We found that systolic blood pressure (SBP; P = 0.005), diastolic blood pressure (DBP; P = 0.05), height (P = 0.05), weight (P = 0.042), and IHD (P = 0.0001) were strongly associated with reduced pulmonary functions like FEV 1 , FEV 1 /FVC%, and FVC. The presence of IHD and HTN were independently associated with the presence of OAD. Conclusions: This study highlights the increased prevalence of OAD amongst patients with IHD and HTN. Patients with IHD and HTN should routinely undergo inexpensive investigations like spirometry to detect the presence of underlying OAD.
  2,177 406 2
Use of cotinine urinalysis to verify self-reported tobacco use among male psychiatric out-patients
Yatan Pal Singh Balhara, Raka Jain, A Shyam Sundar, Rajesh Sagar
July-September 2012, 29(3):217-220
DOI:10.4103/0970-2113.99102  
Context: There is a complex and significant correlation between respiratory disorders and psychiatric conditions. Reliability of self-reported tobacco use has been questioned in recent times. Aims: The current study aims at assessment of accuracy of self-reported tobacco use (both smoked and smokeless) among psychiatric out-patients. Settings and Design: We recruited 131 consecutive subjects from the out-patient psychiatry department of a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: Male patients meeting the study criteria were approached for participation in the study. They were asked about their recent tobacco use history. Those reporting recent use were assessed for severity of dependence using Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND)-smoking and FTND-smokeless scales. Quantitative urine cotinine analysis was performed using the Enzyme Linked Immunesorbant Assay (ELISA) method. Based on this method, a (50 ng/ml) cut off score for urinary cotinine level for tobacco use was set. Statistical Analysis Used: Concordance between the self-report of tobacco use and urinary cotinine level was assessed using the Cohen's kappa. Additionally, Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to examine the correlation between the FTND-smoking and FTND-smokeless scales and the urinary cotinine levels. Results: The values of Cohen's kappa suggest no significant concordance between the self-reported recent tobacco use and urinary cotinine levels for both smoking and smokeless tobacco forms. The discordance was present irrespective of a higher (550 ng/ml) or a lower (50 ng/ml) cut off score for a urinary cotinine level. Pearson's correlation coefficient failed to reveal any significant direct correlation between the FTND scores and urinary cotinine levels. Conclusions: It is recommended to use biological markers such as urinary cotinine levels to corroborates the information provided by the patients.
  2,126 355 3
Autonomic modulations in patients with bronchial asthma based on short-term heart rate variability
Mohamed F Lutfi
July-September 2012, 29(3):254-258
DOI:10.4103/0970-2113.99111  
Background: Although enhanced cholinergic activity of asthmatics has been established early on, little heart rate variability (HRV) studies were done on asthma patients. Previous HRV studies were based on 24-hour recordings and therefore have not considered the extremely labile activity of bronchial asthma. Objective: To evaluate the pattern of autonomic modulations in asthmatic patients based on short-term HRV studies. Materials and Methods: The study involved 100 asthmatic patients with an age range of 20-40 years. Asthma activity was evaluated over the last month prior to patients' assessment using asthma control test (ACT). Allflow Spirometer was used for assessing pulmonary function, while Biocom 3000 electrocardiography recorder was used for studying 5-minute HRV. Data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Software. Heart rate and asthma medications were introduced as a covariate when studied variables were screened for significant correlation between measurements of asthma severity and heart rate variability indices using partial correlations. Results: The level of asthma control correlate positively with both normalized low frequency (LF Norm) and the ratio of low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF) (CC = 0.302, 0.212 and P = 0.002, 0.036, respectively) and negatively with HF Norm (CC = -0.317, P = 0.001). Duration of asthma correlates positively with normalized high frequency (HF Norm) (CC = 0.235, P = 0.020) and negatively with LF Norm (CC = -0.250, P = 0.013). Conclusion: Poor asthma control is associated with lower HRV, depressed sympathetic and enhanced parasympathetic modulations especially in those with longer asthma duration.
  1,988 455 1
CASE REPORTS
Non-invasive ventilation in patients with acute lupus pneumonitis: A case report and review of literature
Akashdeep Singh, Rupinder Kaur
July-September 2012, 29(3):270-272
DOI:10.4103/0970-2113.99115  
Acute lupus pneumonitis is an uncommon but life threatening condition associated with systemic lupus erythematosus. We report the case of a young female who presented to us with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure secondary to acute lupus pneumonitis as initial presenting manifestation of lupus. She was managed with non-invasive ventilation and pulse steroids, with which she had dramatic improvement.
  2,071 352 1
RADIOLOGY QUIZ
Spontaneous pneumomediastinum with a classical radiological sign
Ramakant Dixit, Jacob George
July-September 2012, 29(3):295-296
DOI:10.4103/0970-2113.99126  
  1,638 451 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Vaccination rates for pandemic influenza among pregnant women: An early observation from Chennai, South India
Emmanuel Bhaskar, S Thobias, Syluvai Anthony, Vinod Kumar, Navaneethan
July-September 2012, 29(3):232-235
DOI:10.4103/0970-2113.99105  
Context: World Health organization considers pregnancy as an important risk factor for severe illness due to pandemic influenza and recommends better vaccination coverage for them. Aims: This study was initiated to observe the vaccination rates among pregnant women in Chennai during 2 months following the availability of influenza vaccine in the region. Settings and Design: An urban community-based setting. Questionnaire-based observational study design. Materials and Methods: Pregnant women residing in Chennai selected by simple random sampling formed the study population. The study was conducted from 15 th to 30 th November 2010. Each pregnant woman was interviewed using a uniform questionnaire. Statistical Analysis Used: Characteristics between vaccinated and unvaccinated participants were compared using the Chi-square test or the Fisher exact test for categorical variables and Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney U test for continuous variables. Results: 140 pregnant women were interviewed during the study period. The mean age of study participants was 25 years (range 21-35 years). 55% were less than 26 years of age and 65% were home makers. 32% had no basic school education. Of the 29 women with co-morbidities, 15 had gestational diabetes, 13 hypertension, 7 pre-eclampsia, and 7 had bronchial asthma. Fifty-eight had anemia diagnosed earlier or during current pregnancy. 32 (22.8%) were given advice to get vaccinated for pandemic influenza of which 18 (12.8%) received the vaccine. Conclusions: Observations on vaccination rates for pandemic influenza among pregnant women in Chennai, 2 months after the initiation of vaccination program is not encouraging.
  1,771 296 2
PICTORIAL CME
Isolated absence of right pulmonary artery: Radiographic and multi-detector CT demonstration
Nitin P Ghonge, Bharat Aggarwal
July-September 2012, 29(3):297-299
DOI:10.4103/0970-2113.99127  
  1,705 263 1
CASE REPORTS
A case of Nocardia transvalensis pneumonia in a 19-year-old cystic fibrosis patient
Avinash Aravantagi, Kamakshya P Patra, Marlene Broussard, Kimberly Jones
July-September 2012, 29(3):283-285
DOI:10.4103/0970-2113.99121  
Nocardia species is rarely encountered in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Its isolation usually implies colonization. Of all other Nocardia species, Nocardia transvalensis is very unusual and is clinically distinguishable because of its resistance to aminoglycosides, a standard antinocardial therapy. We report a case of N. transvalensis pulmonary infection in a CF patient.
  1,660 288 1
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Comments: Pleuroscopy in undiagnosed exudative pleural effusion
Beuy Joob, Viroj Wiwanitkit
July-September 2012, 29(3):302-302
  1,651 200 1
EDITORIALS
Lung India: 30 years of my association
Virendra Singh
July-September 2012, 29(3):203-204
DOI:10.4103/0970-2113.99095  
  1,491 325 1
LETTERS TO EDITOR
The lungs and drug delivery
Majid Shohrati, Amin Saburi, Mostafa Ghanei
July-September 2012, 29(3):305-305
DOI:10.4103/0970-2113.99136  
  958 232 -
Comments on "An unusual cause of bronchial obstruction"
Asmita Mehta
July-September 2012, 29(3):300-300
  985 161 1
Comments: Other considerations about surgery in lung cancer
Mostafa Ghanei, Amin Saburi, Jamal Akhavan-Moghadam
July-September 2012, 29(3):303-303
  867 216 1
Authors' Reply
Parvaiz A Koul
July-September 2012, 29(3):303-304
  816 162 -
Authors' Reply
VG Prabhu Ramnath, R Narasimhan
July-September 2012, 29(3):302-302
  691 157 -
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