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RESEARCH LETTER
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 38  |  Issue : 7  |  Page : 125-127  

Clinical and demographic characteristics of deceased patients due to COVID-19 in Bihar


Department of Pulmonary Medicine, AIIMS, Patna, Bihar, India

Date of Submission01-Nov-2020
Date of Acceptance01-Nov-2020
Date of Web Publication06-Mar-2021

Correspondence Address:
Deependra Kumar Rai
Department of Pulmonary Medicine, AIIMS, Patna, Bihar
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/lungindia.lungindia_877_20

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How to cite this article:
Rai DK. Clinical and demographic characteristics of deceased patients due to COVID-19 in Bihar. Lung India 2021;38, Suppl S1:125-7

How to cite this URL:
Rai DK. Clinical and demographic characteristics of deceased patients due to COVID-19 in Bihar. Lung India [serial online] 2021 [cited 2021 Apr 16];38, Suppl S1:125-7. Available from: https://www.lungindia.com/text.asp?2021/38/7/125/310913



Sir,

Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the infectious disease caused by the most recently discovered coronavirus named as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) began in Wuhan, China, in December 2019.[1] SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization on March 11, 2020. As of October 30, 2020, the cases of COVID-19 infection continue to soar worldwide with no peak in sight making total case tally standing at 81,37,119 including 5.82,649 active cases, 72,32,839 cured/discharged/migrated and 1,21,641 deaths, according to the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.[2] In Bihar till October 20, total cases were 207823 including 1011 death. Case fatality rates vary among country and even in country. Case fatality rate was found lowest in Bihar (0.48%) in comparison to other states or national figure of 1.49%. Several studies showed that old age, male sex, and comorbidities such as hypertension and cardiovascular disease are strong risk factors for COVID-19-related hospitalization and mortality.[3],[4] This study is aimed to delineate the clinical characteristics and evaluate the prevalence of underlying comorbidities in COVID-19 deceased patients in Bihar.

We conducted a retrospective study with descriptive research and sought information from the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India and State health society of Bihar website, interaction with state health officer of Bihar.

We analyze all the patients expire due to COVID infection in Bihar till October 20, 2020. Total 1011 patients deceased in given period. We found maximum death in 41–60 years age group, while 13.55% of the deceased were <40 years and 40.65% were >60 years old. Age-wise deceased cases are shown in [Table 1]. Among the deceased, 80.81% were male, whereas 19.18% were female. Case fatality rate found as 0.48%, which is far less than the national figure of 1.49%. It was found highest in elderly patient (2.15%), followed by 0.8%, 0.14%, and 0.02% for the patient with the age group of 41–60, 20–40, and <20 years old, respectively. About 35.5% of the deceased patients had preexisting comorbidities, which was <50.5% of the national figure shown by other study.[5] Hypertension was found as the most common comorbidity (37%), followed by diabetes, cardiac disease, chronic kidney diseases, chronic obstructive airway disease (asthma and COPD), and cancer [Figure 1]. The strong point of this study is one of the largest cohorts of deceased due to COVID-19 infection. This study found the highest death in patient with age group of 41–60 years, although the case fatality rate was highest in elderly patient with age >60 years. The lower mortality in Bihar could be attributed to the lower elderly population, lesser comorbidity, different climate, poor hygiene, and regular bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccination, but all these factors need to prove from further study.
Figure 1: Prevalence (%) of comorbidities in covid 19 deceased cases, CKD: Chronic Kidney disease, COAD: Chronic obstructive airway disease

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Table 1: Characteristics of corona virus disease 2019 deceased patients

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Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
   References Top

1.
Zhu N, Zhang D, Wang W, Li X, Yang B, Song J, et al. A novel coronavirus from patients with pneumonia in China, 2019. N Engl J Med 2020;382:727-33.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India. Available from: https://www.mohfw.gov.in. [Last accessed on 2020 Oct 31].  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Hu Y, Sun J, Dai Z, Deng H, Li X, Huang Q, et al. Prevalence and severity of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19): A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Virol. 2020 Jun;127:104371. doi: 10.1016/j.jcv.2020.104371. Epub 2020 Apr 14. PMID: 32315817; PMCID: PMC7195434.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Yang J, Zheng Y, Gou X, Pu K, Chen Z, Guo Q, et al. Prevalence of comorbidities and its effects in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Infect Dis. 2020 May;94:91-95.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Majeed J, Ajmera P, Goyal RK. Delineating clinical characteristics and comorbidities among 206 COVID-19 deceased patients in India: Emerging significance of renin angiotensin system derangement. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2020;167:108349.  Back to cited text no. 5
    


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