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Lung India Official publication of Indian Chest Society  
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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 38  |  Issue : 7  |  Page : 31-40

Prevalence and mortality of lung comorbidities among patients with COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis

1 Department of Respiratory Care, Prince Sultan Military College of Health Sciences, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK
2 Cancer Prevention and Control Program, Georgetown University School of Medicine, Georgetown University, Washington DC, USA
3 Department of Human Health, Epidemiology and Infectious Disease Control, Qassim University, Qassim, Saudi Arabia
4 Department of Respiratory Care, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia
5 King Fahad Medical City, Respiratory Care Administration, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
6 Itqan Scientific Research Services Company, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
7 University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK; Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Respiratory Care Department, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Mohammed G Alkhathami
Department of Respiratory Care, Prince Sultan Military College of Health Sciences, Dhahran 34313, Saudi Arabia. University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ, Scotland

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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/lungindia.lungindia_497_20

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COVID-19 infections are seen across all age groups, but they have shown to have a predisposition for the elderly and those with underlying comorbidities. Patients with severe COVID-19 infections and comorbidities are more prone to respiratory distress syndrome, mechanical ventilator use, and ultimately succumb to these complications. Little evidence exists of the prevalence of underlying lung comorbidities among COVID-19 patients and associated mortality. We performed a systematic review of the literature including PubMed (Medline), Embase (Ovid), Google Scholar, and Cochrane Library. The last date for our search was April 29, 2020. We included all original research articles on COVID-19 and calculated prevalence of chronic lung disease patients among COVID-19 patients using random effects model. Further, we assessed for mortality rates among COVID-19 patients associated with these lung comorbidities. The authors identified 29 articles that reported prevalence of chronic lung conditions among COVID-19 patients. Among those, 26 were from China and 3 from the United States. The pooled prevalence of lung comorbidities including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and lung cancer was 3% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0%–14%), 2.2% (95% CI = 0.02%–0.03%), and 2.1% (95% CI = 0.00%–0.21%), respectively. Mortality rates associated with these comorbidities was 30% (41/137) for COPD and 19% (7/37) for lung cancer respectively. No mortality rates were reported for patients with asthma. This study offers latest evidence of prevalence of chronic lung conditions among patients with COVID-19. Asthma, followed by COPD and lung cancer, was the most common lung comorbidity associated with COVID-19, while the higher mortality rate was found in COPD. Future studies are needed to assess other lung comorbidities and associated mortality among patients diagnosed with COVID-19.

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